Motivation Theory

The word motivation is coined from the Latin word “movere”, which means to move. Motivation is defined as an internal drive that activates behavior and gives it direction. The term motivation theory is concerned with the processes that describe why and how human behavior is activated and directed. It is regarded as one of the most important areas of study in the field of organizational behavior. There are two different categories of motivation theories such as content theories, and process theories. Even though there are different motivation theories, none of them are universally accepted.

Also known as need theory, the content theory of motivation mainly focuses on the internal factors that energize and direct human behavior. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, Alderfer’s ERG theory, Herzeberg’s motivator-hygiene theory (Herzeberg’s dual factors theory), and McClelland’s learned needs or three-needs theory are some of the major content theories.

Of the different types of content theories, the most famous content theory is Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of human needs. Maslow introduced five levels of basic needs through his theory. Basic needs are categorized as physiological needs, safety and security needs, needs of love, needs for self esteem and needs for self-actualization.

Just like Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, ERG theory explains existence, relatedness, and growth needs. Through dual factors theory, Herzeberg describes certain factors in the workplace which result in job satisfaction. McClelland’s learned needs or three-needs theory uses a projective technique called the Thematic Aptitude Test (TAT) so as to evaluate people based on three needs: power, achievement, and affiliation. People with high need of power take action in a way that influences the other’s behavior.

Another type of motivation theory is process theory. Process theories of motivation provide an opportunity to understand thought processes that influence behavior. The major process theories of motivation include Adams’ equity theory, Vroom’s expectancy theory, goal-setting theory, and reinforcement theory. Expectancy, instrumentality, and valence are the key concepts explained in the expectancy theory. Goal setting theory suggests that the individuals are motivated to reach set goals. It also requires that the set goals should be specific. Reinforcement theory is concerned with controlling behavior by manipulating its consequences.

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4 Most Common Extraordinary Automobile Accidents Circumstances

In some situations, auto accident litigation may be a relatively simple type of case. But it can become much more complicated in cases involving substantial injuries with questionable insurance coverage limits on the other vehicle. The following article will discuss 4 main extraordinary circumstances that can often add complex issues to an already emotional and physically painful time following an accident. However, understanding these 4 situations can help make the aftermath of an auto accident and its subsequent injuries a much smoother experience.

Leased Cars

Not only is the operator of the at-fault vehicle responsible to anyone injured in an auto accident, but the owner of the vehicle is also responsible. The owner is responsible for the negligence of the operator, when that operation occurs with the permission of the owner. This is extremely important when the vehicle at fault is leased.

These days, there are a great number of cars and trucks on the road being driven on a lease basis. Because of this, it may be critical to go beyond the name on the registration to find out the exact owner of the vehicle. It is a fact that when a vehicle is leased from a big car company, the registration will simply bear the name of the user of the vehicle, the lessee. However, the actual owner of the vehicle, the lessor, is usually a major corporation with unlimited insurance coverage.

It is unfortunate for the severely injured victim when, as happens many times, the at-fault vehicle’s actual ownership is never discovered and the additional insurance is never disclosed.

Business Vehicles

Though it is common for companies to put their names in bold letters on their business vehicles, it is not always the case. When accidents occur, many times there is no indication that the vehicle was being used for business purposes. In fact, it may appear to the casual observer that the vehicle was not being used for business at the time. The only way to find out if the vehicle was being used for business is doing an in-depth investigation.

If a vehicle is being operated by an employee during the course of his or her employment, then the employer may be “vicariously responsible” for the negligence of their employee in operating that vehicle. It is very possible that the employer has additional liability coverage far exceeding that of the driver. An “excess” insurance policy may also exist.

Defects

One of the causes of an auto accident may be a highway defect, such as improper design, maintenance, construction, signage, or lighting. Liability may also be based on improper striping on the road’s passing lanes, a hill that impairs driver visibility, a sharp obstruction or problem with the roadway that obstructs drivers’ vision. Trees and utility poles can also cause problems when planted or erected too close to the roadway.

The Seatbelt Defense

While seatbelts and airbags provide an important function and do prevent serious injuries or death to people involved in accidents, they are not guarantees that you will not be killed or injured in a serious accident.

Seatbelts and airbags can fail or cause injury in and of themselves. But yet, the seatbelt defense, often used by attorneys defending at-fault drivers, seeks to establish that some, or all, of the plaintiff’s injuries were caused by the failure to wear a seatbelt.

All in all, it is essential that a routine investigation be done, in any case involving a vehicular accident. Police records must be obtained, witnesses interviewed and photographs taken immediately of the accident scene and damage to the vehicles. Prompt contact must be made with the insurance company of the negligent driver to learn of the available coverage limits and attempt to find out additional information from the adjuster regarding possible other areas for coverage. Many times, the at-fault driver’s insurance company adjuster will attempt to record a statement from the victim, without advice of counsel. This should never be permitted.

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For a Blast From the Past Visit a Vintage Car Show

Annual car shows where manufacturers and dealers work together to exhibit the newest models of vehicles coming out of the factories can be found in almost all of the world’s major cities. Although the biggest car shows bring in huge crowds and create a lot of buzz, there are a lot of smaller, more specialized car shows that focus on classic, vintage, and antique automobiles.

Although there are less car shows specializing in antique, vintage, and classic cars, there are still enough for people with an appreciation for the role of classic cars in American history and the work that goes into restoring them. The fact that people continue to have a passionate and enduring love for the nostalgia and history of antique cars means that the market for these cars continues to grow.

These specialty shows can be harder to find because they are not advertised as well as the bigger shows organized by car manufacturers. Online research listings are the best way to find vintage car shows with classic cars. If you are interested in seeing classic, vintage, and antique cars, you should really try to go to a show if you see one advertised in your area. If not, then you will have to wait a year or more to see this event again.

One reason why many people love to go to specialty autos shows is because the cars are judged by experts who know a lot about classic car restoration. What people learn can make them more confident in buying vintage cars, because these experts can teach them how to judge the condition and market value of these unique and special automobiles.

Those who are thinking about buying cars as an investment, or for the simple pleasure of owning classic vehicles, can learn a lot about classic cars from Internet. There are very good online resources to find useful information about classic vehicles and how to restore them. Knowing this type of information allows people to make informed decisions regarding what to buy, so they can enjoy their vintage vehicle for many more years.

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What is the History Behind Honda Cars?

Headquartered in Japan, the Honda Company has had a long and successful history of making quality cars. The Honda Technology Research Institute Company is the 6th largest automobile manufacturer in the world and the biggest engine-builder in the world. Each year, Honda builds more than 14 million internal combustion engines. The company builds automobiles, motorcycles, trucks, scooters, robots, jets and jet engines, ATV, water craft, electrical generators, marine engines, lawn and garden equipment, mountain bikes, and aeronautical technologies.

In October 1946, Soichiro Honda established the Honda Technical Research Institute in Hamamatsu, Japan. The goal was to develop and build small 2-cycle motorbike engines. Two years later, Honda Motor Company, Ltd. was created. Honda’s first US storefront opened in 1959 in Los Angeles.

Honda’s first production automobile was the T360 mini pick-up truck. The first production car from Honda was the S500 sports car.

Chronological highlights of the history of behind Honda cars as reported by world.honda.com include:

1963 Honda’s first sports car (S500) and light truck (T360) released. 1966 Sales and export of S800 begin. 1967 Front-wheel-drive minicar, N360, released. 1968 Export of N360 and N600 begin.

1971 Life minicar released.

1972 Civic released.

1976 Accord CVCC (1600cc) released.

1978 Prelude released.

1981 City released. 1985 Today minicar and Legend released. Quint Integra released.

1986 Honda expanded into the luxury automobile market with the creation of the Acura brand

1989 Accord Inspire released.

1990 NSX sports car released. 1992 Worldwide automobile production reaches 20 million units. 1994 Odyssey released.

1995 Worldwide Civic production reaches 10 million units. CR-V sports utility vehicle released. Worldwide automobile production reaches 30 million units.

1996 Step WGN (Wagon) released. 1999 Honda S2000 sports car released. Lagreat Canadian-made minivan released. Insight hybrid released.

2000 Life Almas, first minicar with features for the physically challenged, released. Stream minivan released.

2001 Fit released. Civic Hybrid released.

2003 Honda becomes the first Japanese automaker to produce 10 million cars in the U. S. New Odyssey released.

2005 Ridgeline next-generation truck released in U.S. American Honda Motor begins sales of Phill, the first home refueling appliance for natural gas vehicles. Leasing of FCX fuel cell vehicle for home use begins. Worldwide sales of Honda hybrid vehicles reached 100,000.

2006 Zest unveiled. Performance of next-generation fuel-cell car FCX Concept demonstrated.

2007 Crossroad released.

In August 2008, Honda surpassed Chrysler as the 4th largest automobile manufacturer in the United States. Currently, Honda is the second largest manufacturer in Japan behind Toyota and ahead of Nissan.

Honda increased global production in September 2008 to meet demand for small cars in the U.S. and emerging markets. Due to the current global crisis, the company is now rearranging U.S. production to keep operations functioning, while building fewer minivans and sport utility vehicles.

Honda introduced the second-generation Insight in its home nation of Japan in February 2009. The U.S. market received the new Insight in April 2009. Honda expects to sell 200,000 of the vehicles each year, with half of those sales in the United States. Since 2002, Honda has been selling the Honda Civic Hybrid (2003 model) in the US market. It was followed by the Honda Accord Hybrid.

The history of Honda Cars has been filled with many achievements. With the current economic slow down, Honda is making necessary adjustments to its business structure to ensure its future success.

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Gold and Silver Home Business – The Future of Network Marketing is Here

Ask anyone you meet about the economy and they will probably tell you at least one story of economic disaster. People are losing their jobs. At this writing, one in every 10 automobiles you pass on the interstate has an unemployed driver. Speaking of automobiles, General Motors just posted a 4.3 Billion dollar loss for the July-December period of 2009. So when you mention financial futures, most people are not very optimistic.

Hold on to your retirement fund (what little is left of it), because there is new hope. A new era in Network Marketing quietly arrived August of 2009. A new company now provides anyone the ability to Create Wealth, Accumulate Wealth, and Collect Wealth in a way that will soon prove to exceed – the fragile and sometimes even fraudulent claims of modern day retirement funds.

This new company is called Numis Network. Numis has combined the wealth building aspects of Network Marketing with the Proven Wealth building history of Graded, Certified Numismatic Gold and Silver Coins.

Let me be clear: Numis Network Numismatic coins are NOT investments, they are collectibles!

Do not confuse these Gold and Silver Coins with the Bullion Coin market. The value of bullion coins is very volatile and risky in comparison to Certified Gold and Silver Numismatic Coins.

You may be asking: why would anyone create a Network Marketing company that markets coins? Because it’s time has come.

Here’s why Numis Network is simply the best Home Business for anyone:

Numismatics is a 100 Billion dollar a year industry world wide. In the U.S. alone, it is a 10 Billion dollar industry. In my own personal experience, I witnessed my Dad purchase numismatic coins throughout his life. After his death, I was amazed to realize that his vast collection of numismatic collectibles had grown in value. Over time his coins reached a value that was over 3-5 times what he had paid for them. Many of these coins were less than five years old.

Network Marketing continues to produce many new millionaires every year. Warren Buffet, Robert Kiyosaki and Donald Trump have all announced their support and praise for Network Marketing. The combined worldwide industry of Network Marketing was recently valued at over 114 Billion dollars a year. Most Network Marketing companies are selling juices, or services that are ‘consumable’. Once you drink it or use it, it’s gone. There is no residual value to them.

A Numismatic Coin is an Asset – it is not an investment. I repeat: a numismatic coin is NOT an investment. However, It can be used as Collateral for a loan because it is an Asset. This is the only “product” anyone would love to have a garage full of.

The founders of Numis Network are experienced Network Marketers. They have already made their fortunes. So why are they building a new company? One of the co-founders recently told me he came out of retirement to start Numis, as a way to help save the World Economy. Because Network Marketing has enriched his life in ways he never would have imagined, he wanted to give back to the industry, and the world.

With Numis Network, you can start your own Home Business, with a very small startup cost. Your “product” is a Graded and Certified Numismatic Collectable Coin (priced below retail). It is not an “investment”, it is an Asset.

Assets have known value, investments do not. There is no need for training, or “demonstrations” and product “samples” because everyone recognizes the value of Money. No other franchise or Network Marketing Company can offer a Home Business that Creates Wealth, and provides Wealth Building Gold and Silver Assets at the same time.

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How to Sell Cars for Scrap

If you have a clunker sitting in your driveway, garage, or — heaven forbid — your front yard, you may have more than a useless vehicle on your hands. Although your car may look like it came from the set of “Mad Max: Beyond Thunderdome,” it could still be worth money. To find out if it is, you should take it to a salvage yard that offers cash for junk cars, or have the company come to you if the vehicle is un-drivable. Before you make a phone call, though, there are a few things that you should know about how to sell cars for scrap, information that will help you get the most money for your clunker — maybe even enough to put a down payment on a new set of wheels.

Don’t Undersell a Usable Vehicle

If the automobile still works, you may get more money from offering it as a used vehicle than as a useless clunker. Some salvage lots buy drivable vehicles in addition wrecked and broken down automobiles that aren’t usable. If your clunker still runs, check out how much it is worth in the Kelly Blue Book before you liquidate it for its parts.

Don’t Pay a Towing Fee

If a salvage yard that pays cash for junk cars wants your vehicle, it should tow it from your property for free. When a salvage lot liquidates an automobile, it receives far more money than it costs to buy the vehicle and tow it. Therefore, there’s no reason to get stuck with a towing bill.

If a yard tries to charge you a towing fee, call a different yard where you can sell cars for scrap without paying a fee for towing.

Receive More Than One Bid

Receiving more than one bid helps keep bidders honest. If a prospective buyer knows that you will receive other offers, or have already received them, he is likely to make a fair, competitive bid. Because the value of a clunker is hard for the seller to assess, receiving more than one bid serves another purpose, too: it helps you get a good idea of the value of the automobile.

Conclusion

When you sell cars for scrap, there are three basic rules you should follow to get the biggest return: don’t undersell a usable vehicle, receive more than one bid, and don’t pay a towing fee. By following these rules, you can get cash for junk cars that you thought were worthless.

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Bike Lanes Prevent Injury and Reduce the Need for an Auto Accident Injury Lawyer

In cities across the United States, drivers may be noticing a narrow separate lane has been added on the side of the street. These designated bike lanes, sometimes marked by a symbol of a bicycle to denote their purpose, are preventing automobile-bicycle accidents across the nation and saving people money they would have spent on hospital bills and an auto accident injury lawyer.

Many people’s excuses for not making the healthier, more eco-friendly decision to ride a bike instead of a vehicle include issues with safety and not having a smooth, continuous path on which to ride. Many Americans who own bikes simply consider them recreational toys that are meant to be brought to the park to ride around for exercise.

However, the bicycle is slowly reclaiming its place as a viable transportation device. Thanks to the addition of bike lanes in many major cities, more people have been getting to and from work, school and the grocery on two wheels.

Studies have shown that the number of bike accidents decreases as the number of bicyclists on the road increases. The lanes encourage main road bicycling, which has proven to decrease automobile traffic. The greater presence of bicyclists forces those who do choose to drive automobiles to take the lanes seriously and to yield to the more fragile vehicle.

In the Netherlands, for example, the rate of automobile-on-bicycle accidents is about 26 times lower than that of the United States. This is true despite the fact that about 25 percent of their population commutes by bike, while only 1 percent of our population does so. Why? The Netherlands, though a much smaller area, contains over 18,000 miles of segregated bicycle lanes.

The lanes encourage more cycling and less driving, a change that is overall beneficial. More cycling and less driving means less traffic, less pollution, more exercise, more safety and less money one would potentially spend on gas, maintenance and an auto accident injury lawyer.

But some people have taken issue with the lanes. In New York, ironically one of the first U.S. cities to establish enforceable bike lanes, protesters argue that the lanes take away from their rights as motor vehicle operators by forcing them to share the road. Other arguments against the lanes include the fact that they take away precious curbside parking spots, run through loading zones originally designated for delivery trucks and sometimes actually cause more traffic because of the narrowed lanes.

However frustrating the adjustment period might be, studies have shown that equipping cities with bike-friendly roadways severely reduces instances of automobile-on-bicycle accidents and injuries. The protection of people’s lives and physical safety outweighs the minor Inconveniences posed by the lanes.

In the end, most drivers probably would prefer to suck it up and yield to bikers than to have to deal with an auto accident injury lawyer after accidentally knocking a cyclist off of a bicycle-unfriendly roadway.

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Automatic Tunnel Robotic Car Wash Systems And Pre-Prepping Prior To Automobile Washing

Every carwash owner is looking for a system that is fully automatic and robotic for their tunnel carwash so that they do not have to do any pre-prep washing. If you ever go to a fully robotic carwash you might notice before the car goes in there is someone there with a little pressure washer, a brush and a soap mitt getting the car ready to go through the tunnel.

The first time you see this you think yourself why is that person there? Shouldn’t the automatic carwash be good enough to clean the car without any human labor? Well that is the dig really; the truth is no, most of them can’t. It is unfortunate that robotic carwash cleaning equipment costs so much and does not fully clean the car properly. If the carwash owners do not pre-prep the car then there will be customer complaints.

Of course if they do prep the car prior to wash it slows the speed, cuts down the volume of cars that can be washed in the day and changes the consistency of each car washed due to the human element. All this is true of course however, not all cars are created equally. Consider if you will that every car has different bodylines and the robotic carwash system may not be able to get to everything.

Those hard to get to spots can be cleaned in advance and pre-prepped prior to entering the tunnel carwash. There is somewhat of a debate that goes on in the industry, as to whether carwash owners should pre-prepped the cars.

But in the end if the car is not clean enough the customer is not happy and therefore they will not return and you will eventually go into business for not enough customers or get a bad reputation and the competition will end up smoking you in the market place. Please consider all this in 2006.

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The Truth About Personal Injury Protection – & Some Myths

Trying to get insurance cover can be a real minefield to most people. It is almost always an unbelievably expensive item with respect to the family budget. Unfortunately however, it can be horrendously costly in another way if the cover is not appropriate or does not cover the intended items. Let’s look at the main kinds of cover and attempt to throw a little light on the subject.

The best automobile insurance policies will include the following items: uninsured motorist coverage, personal property liability, collision coverage, bodily injury liability, comprehensive coverage and personal injury protection (PIP). Some of these elements are required by all states whilst others are not required. Collision coverage pays for all damages to a automobile or other vehicle when it is in collision with another automobile or other vehicle or non-vehicular object, even if the insurance holder is at fault. Comprehensive insurance policies protect the insurance holder in the unfortunate situation that their automobile or other vehicle is taken without the owner’s permission, damaged illegally, harmed by an act of nature or damaged otherwise. Both of these kinds of insurance are always optional and are usually very costly.

Bodily injury and personal property insurance are required by all U.S. states in in one way or another. Where the states differ greatly is in the minimum guaranteed payout that is set for each. For example, in Alaska, a driver is required to carry coverage that has a guaranteed minimum bodily injury payout of $100,000. In Florida, a driver is only required to carry coverage worth $10,000.

Many elements of an auto insurance policy that could be optional are cover for the uninsured motorist and personal injury protection. The coverage for the uninsured motorist protects the insurance holder in case he or she has an accident with an uninsured person. It provides the insurance policies that should possibly have been supplied by the other party. PIP, in the event of an accident, pays for the medical expenses and other assorted damages incurred by the insurance holder and their passengers (or if the insurance holder is an injured pedestrian). Carrying personal injury protection is mandatory in: Colorado, Delaware, Florida, Hawaii, Kansas, Kentucky, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, New Jersey, New York, North Dakota, Oregon and Utah.

Even if personal injury protection is not mandatory in your state, you may still want to consider purchasing the insurance policies. PIP, in the event of an accident, will pay around 80% (depending on insurance policies limits) of the costs of the insurance holder and passengers. These costs include medical bills, lost wages and other assorted expenses. personal injury protection is a no-fault policy, so it will cover you and your passengers, even if the reason for claim was your fault.

personal injury protection, sometimes known as Medical Payment Insurance or Medpay, is a no-fault insurance policies for a couple of reasons. Firstly, the fact that blame does not have to be confirmed saves time and therefore allows medical payments to get into the pockets of the injured parties as soon as possible.

Secondly, it saves everybody from the cost of lawsuits being filed so that responsibility can be proved for an accident and therefore who has responsibility for the bills. One time a personal injury protection policy might allow for a lawsuit is when serious injury or death occurs.

Before you purchase personal injury protection, you would be advised to take a look at your current policies and see whether or not the insurance policies offered by personal injury protection is duplicated elsewhere. It could be that the cost of lost wages and medical bills may be recovered through an existing health insurance policy. If this is the case, then you may need minimal personal injury protection or none at all. Your driving habits will also help determine whether or not you need personal injury protection. Do you carry passengers on a regular basis? While your health insurance might cover your own medical expenses, it won’t cover those of your passengers (unless they are members of your family who are on your health plan). Ask your regular passengers about their own health insurance policies and its coverage. If they are inadequately covered or not covered at all, you need personal injury protection in order to keep them covered. This may seem like the thin end of the wedge, especially if you’re the one driving an office car pool, however, the safety of any passenger riding in your car is always going to be your responsibility.

If you reside in a state that requires personal injury protection you will need to know the minimum amount of cover you must have because this has already been decided for you. If you live in a state where personal injury protection is not mandatory however, you might decide that you need the extra insurance policies anyway. How much insurance policies you need depends, mainly, on your age. If you are middle-aged or older, have good health and liability insurance policies, then you will need minimal personal injury protection insurance policies. If, on the other hand, you are young, just starting out and still don’t have much in the way of health and liability insurance, you will want to protect yourself, your family and your future by carrying as much insurance as you can afford. This is especially true if you have a young family or if you constantly carry others in your automobile or other vehicle.

So there we have it, whether you require PIP and at what level, depends on several factors: where you live, your driving habits, your employment, your health, your personal circumstances and your level of existing cover. Whatever your circumstances however, you need to research it carefully so that you can rest easy knowing that you are safely covered.

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Towing Services Offer More Than Towing

A lot of people think Henry Ford invented the first car. However, about 20 years before Ford automated car production with the assembly line, Karl Benz invented the first automobile. It wasn’t until 1916 that the first drivers licenses were issued. A couple of years after that a model T Ford was driven into a creek in Tennessee and the seeds of the tow truck evolution were planted.

A local business man heard of the wreck and got his brother, the local service station owner to help him get the car out of the ditch. With the help of a few more volunters, a block and tackle and a little bit of sweat the men finally got the car out of the Tennesse creek. And it only took 8 hours to get that done. The business man thought, there has to be a better way!

His name was Ernest Holmes and he went back home a started puttering around in his garage rigging up a winch of sorts on the back of his 1913 Cadillac. The first time he tried to use it his car started to tip over. He realized he need some lateral support and design crude outriggers that he could attach to the side of the Caddy to keep it from tipping. He tested and modified his Caddy with the winch and the outriggers over the next 3 years until he had a product which worked reliably and without incident.

He file for a patent in 1919. The Holmes 485 was the first vehicle produced for the sole purpose of towing broken down automobiles in the early 20th century. He produced his “wrecker”, as they were know in those days, and sold them to service stations at the time. He continued to produce tow trucks well into the 1970’s. His 1919 Holmes 485 still exists in an auto museum in Tennessee.

Tow trucks today have come a long way. There are trucks for a simple car tow which put the cars drive train on a fork shaped lift. This prevents any damage to the drive train while the car is being towed to the body shop. One the other end of the spectrum are very large semi trailer sized trucks which have large cranes on the back decks that have tha capability of setting on its wheels an over turned 18 wheeler.

Most tow trucks now have GPS navigation and tracking systems, on board HD cameras and other modern technology which make the job of getting damage vehicles of any size safely back to the shop.

Most tow truck companies offer a complete line of automotive services that include flat tire repair, car lockout rescues, out gas breakdowns, jump starts for dead batteries and other automotive services necessary to keep your automobile on the road and you on your way.

Quality tow companies have 24/7 phone answering and drivers on call so that if you have a breakdown or an accident anytime, day or night, help can be dispatched to help you.

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